By Gary Andrew Poole
Along with his shellacking of Antonio Margarito in November 2010, Manny “PacMan” Pacquiao grew to become the single boxer ever to win 8 global championships in 8 diverse weight sessions. Proclaimed the “fighter of the decade” by way of ESPN and lately elected Congressman within the Philippines, he's an notion to his countrymen. yet to many, he is still an enigma. In PacMan—named the most effective activities books of 2010 through the Guardian—Gary Andrew Poole pulls again the curtain in an “amazing story of ways a reed-thin Filipino, who left his domestic within the poorest pocket of the Philippines (“TheCity of Dust”) on the age of 15…became probably the most recognizable names and faces within the world.”—Dallas Morning News
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Additional resources for PacMan: Behind the Scenes with Manny Pacquiao--the Greatest Pound-for-Pound Fighter in the World
For the elite athlete, this accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations eventually limits peak performance (Wallace & Lott, 2002). , 1992). , 2006). Somatic mtDNA point mutations also accumulate with age. , 1999). Furthermore, somatic point mutation levels are elevated in neurodegenerative diseases. , 2004). , 2006). , 2005). , 2008). Therapeutic Approaches to Enhance Mitochondrial Function Mitochondrial deficiencies might be treated by either metabolic or genetic therapies. Presumably, these same strategies could be used to enhance normal performance.
2007). Among elite Kenyan long-distance runners, haplogroup 22 c h a pter 2 L0 was strongly associated with endurance performance. , 2009). While a study of Ethiopian elite athletes did not reveal a strong association between mtDNA haplogroup and athletic performance, the Ethiopian samples lacked African haplogroup L0 mtDNAs. Assuming that the greatest difference in coupling efficiency occurred between haplogroup L0, the founding mtDNA haplogroup, and haplogroups L1, L2, and L3 which are similar to each other and less tightly coupled, then there might have been little functional differences between the Ethiopian mtDNA haplogroups.
Based on these results and similar trends observed in relation to various clinical problems, we can propose a preliminary hierarchy for mtDNA haplogroups: L0 Ͼ (L1, L2, L3) Ͼ I Ͼ H Ͼ U Ͼ J Ͼ Uk. For endurance longdistance runners, this list is arranged from high to low, while for sprinters the list is from low to high. Somatic mtDNA Mutations It is well established that athletic performance peaks in the latter teens and twenties, and then declines with age. This correlates with the accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations in post-mitotic tissues with age.