Phosphates: Geochemical, Geobiological, and Materials by Matthew J. Kohn, John F. Rakovan, John M. Hughes

By Matthew J. Kohn, John F. Rakovan, John M. Hughes

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Extra resources for Phosphates: Geochemical, Geobiological, and Materials Importance (Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, V. 48)

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MnIIm). Warren and Mazelsky (1974) noted that the signal intensity from MnII increases with increase in the Mn/Ca value, whereas the MnIIm signal intensity decreases. Warren and Mazelsky (1974) associated the MnIIm center with the ( O )+ defect (Warren 1972; see above). Suitch et al. (1985) suggested that incorporation of Mn into FAp results in a reduction of symmetry to P63 or P3. This suggestion, however, was not supported by studies of natural Mn-rich FAp (Hughes et al. 1991a; Ercit et al.

1981; Mayer and Cohen 1983). , Ca1, Urusov and Khudolozhkin, 1974; Ca2, Borisov and Klevtsova 1963), recent X-ray structure refinements of natural and synthetic apatites have all shown that REEs in FAp, OHAp, and OAp generally prefer the Ca2 site and that the site-occupancy ratios (REE-Ca2/REE-Ca1) decrease monotonically with increase in atomic number through the 4f transition series (Hughes et al. 1991b, 1992; Fleet and Pan 1994, 1995a, 1997a; Takahashi et al. 1998; Fleet et al. 2000a; Serret et al 2000).

Wondratschek (1963) reported the loss of the 63 axis in Pb10(PO4)6O and attributed it to an ordered arrangement of vacancy and O2along the c-axis. Divalent anions. , O2-, CO32-, O22-, S2-, NCN2-, and NO22-) has also been well established. , Young and Munson 1966; Sudarsanan and Young 1980) and has also been demonstrated by the synthesis of oxyapatites (Ito 1968; Felsche 1972; Schroeder and Mathew 1978; Azimov et al. 1981; Piriou et al. 1987; Lacout and Mikou 1989; Takahashi et al. 1998; Buvaneswari and Varadaraju 2000).

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