Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials Engineering by R.E. Smallman, CBE, DSc, FRS, FREng, FIMMM, and A.H.W. Ngan,

By R.E. Smallman, CBE, DSc, FRS, FREng, FIMMM, and A.H.W. Ngan, PhD, FIMMM, CSci, CEng (Auth.)

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Bowen, H. K. and Uhlmann, D. R. (1976). Introduction to Ceramics, 2nd edn. John Wiley, Chichester. Puddephatt, R. J. and Monaghan, P. K. (1986). The Periodic Table of the Elements. Clarendon Press, Oxford. van Vlack, L. H. (1985). Elements of Materials Science, 5th edn. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. 1 Crystallization from the melt Freezing of a pure metal At some stage of production the majority of metals and alloys are melted and then allowed to solidify as a casting. The latter may be an intermediate product, such as a large steel ingot suitable for hotworking, or a complex final shape, such as an engine cylinder block of cast iron or a single-crystal gas-turbine blade of superalloy.

17b) alternately with boron and nitrogen atoms, and also slightly altering the stacking registry of the layer planes. It feels slippery like graphite and is sometimes called ‘white graphite’. Unlike graphite, it is an insulator, having no free electrons. Another abrasive medium, silicon carbide (SiC), can be represented in one of its several crystalline forms by the zinc blende structure. Silicon and carbon are tetravalent and the coordination is tetrahedral, as would be expected. 3b) schematically portrayed the ionic bonding within magnesium oxide (periclase).

The number of interstices = 1 + 14 × 12 = 4. For bcc, the coordinates are (0, 12 , 14 ) and there are four such sites on each face, which are shared by two unit cells, so number of interstices = 12 × 4 × 6 = 12. Carbon does not occupy the tetrahedral site because it has to squeeze out four symmetrically arranged atoms. Instead, it occupies the octahedral site (0, 0, 12 ) because it pushes out only two atoms. (3) (i) C Ͻ0 0 0 1Ͼ Ͻ1 1 0 0Ͼ c a3 a2 Ͻ2 1 1 1Ͼ a1 Ͻ1 1 2 0Ͼ Ͻ1 0 1 0Ͼ (ii) Volume of cell = 3 × a2 × √ 3 2 × c.

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