Plant biology: Instant notes by Lack A.J., Evans D.E.

By Lack A.J., Evans D.E.

Speedy Notes in Plant Biology covers all elements of recent plant biology. The scope and intensity of this article are appropriate for a primary and moment yr undergraduate pupil of plant biology, together with molecular biologists and biotechnologists.

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The embryo sac derives from divisions of a single haploid cell, itself the result of a meiotic division in which three of the four cells abort. The embryo sac described above occurs in about 70% of flowering plants but there are at least 10 other types of embryo sac known, some characteristic of certain families, others within one family or even on the same plant. The total 48 Section D – Reproductive anatomy Antipodal cells Central nucleus Egg cell Synergid Micropyle Fig. 2. An eight-celled embryo sac.

The structure of a plant gene. The promoter region is adjacent to the structural region that contains the code for the final protein, made up of exons and introns. The TATA box is important in RNA polymerase II binding; DNA copying begins 20–30 base pairs away at the transcription start site. offspring is triploid (has three sets of genes). In plants, this is frequently nonlethal and plants may show polyploidy, that is more than one copy of each chromosome. Plants with an even number of copies are fertile, such as hexaploid wheat (six copies), while those with an odd number are normally sterile as they cannot undergo pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis.

They penetrate the soil, growing by elongation near the tip. As soil is a resistant medium, the growing tip has a near conical protective root cap (Fig. 1) which lubricates the root surface as it is pushed by cell expansion between soil particles. Growth occurs when new cells, formed in meristems in the zone of cell division elongate in the elongation zone (Fig. 1). This elongation is driven by hydrostatic pressure within the cell (Topic I1) that propels the root tip deeper into the soil. The elongation zone is effectively cylindrical, allowing growth in the soil.

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