Powder Metallurgy Data. Refractory, Hard and Intermetallic by P. Beiss, R. Ruthardt, H. Warlimont (auth.), P. Beiss, R.

By P. Beiss, R. Ruthardt, H. Warlimont (auth.), P. Beiss, R. Ruthardt, H. Warlimont (eds.)

For many purposes powder metallurgy (PM) is the single solution to economically produce so-called very unlikely fabrics e.g. homogenous advantageous grained immiscible fabrics, nanomaterials, hugely alloyed segregation unfastened device steels or nickel base alloys, functionally graded fabrics, bonded tough fabrics or infrequent earth demanding magnets, simply to identify few. The scope of this knowledge assortment is the authoritative assurance of seriously evaluated and reviewed information on actual, chemical and mechanical homes, together with details to be had from convention lawsuits, corporation literature and the across the world very assorted criteria on PM fabrics, catalogues and brochures, examine studies and medical journals. The accumulated info used to be so broad that the editors determined to divide the amount in components, subvolume VIII/2A1: Metals and Magnetic fabrics, and subvolume VIII2A2: Refractory, difficult and Intermetallic Materials.

The editors are obliged to the authors which completed a density of not easy middle details that would lengthy remain unsurpassed and that's priceless for software and for all practicians, engineers and scientists, that are operating during this field.

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Powder Metallurgy Data. Refractory, Hard and Intermetallic Materials

For lots of functions powder metallurgy (PM) is the single strategy to economically produce so-called most unlikely fabrics e. g. homogenous fantastic grained immiscible fabrics, nanomaterials, hugely alloyed segregation unfastened instrument steels or nickel base alloys, functionally graded fabrics, bonded challenging fabrics or infrequent earth not easy magnets, simply to identify few.

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A charge of tungsten metal, graphite chips, titanium dioxide and nickel is heated to a temperature above 1600 °C. The tungsten and titanium atoms combine with carbon atoms to form a mixed crystal within a molten bath of nickel. The mixed crystal particles are released by acid dissolution of the cooled mass. 2 Direct reduction of ore The direct reduction of tungsten ore scheelite - CaWO4 - can be achieved by an exothermic reaction to produce a very coarse tungsten carbide [68M]. The process uses a mixture of iron oxide, aluminium, carbon, calcium carbide and scheelite.

5 Production of titanium carbide Titanium carbide is manufactured by the high temperature, ca. 2000 - 2200 °C, reduction and carburisation of a mixture of high purity titanium di-oxide, TiO2, and carbon black or graphite powder (see Table 8 and Table 9) in a vacuum induction furnace. g. Ti3O5, Ti2O3. Traces of oxygen and nitrogen are bound to the titanium carbide in the form of a mixed crystal Ti (C, O, N) [96B1]. The titanium-carbon equilibrium diagram is shown in Fig. 10 [67S1]. A typical range of titanium carbide powders commercially available is shown in Table 13.

P. 3 Zinc process Based on an early patent of Trent [46T], a novel extraction method of utilising hardmetal scrap as the starting material was developed [71B1]. The hard (sintered) scrap is treated with molten zinc and subsequently the zinc is removed by distillation. Initially the zinc forms an alloy with the cobalt binder, which disrupts the solid material. After removing the zinc, the residue can be re-milled to form alloy powders. 4 Combined reduction and carburising A combined reduction and carburising process using a mixture of tungsten trioxide, WO3, and carbon black which is processed through two consecutively connected rotating furnaces yields a fine grain tungsten carbide powder [88A2].

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