By S. A. Tsukerman (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Powder Metallurgy, Edition: First edition
Lateral pressure increases with the plasticity o f the powder, with greater dispersion o f the powder, and with greater coefficient o f friction o f the powder against the die walls. T h e d r o p in density gets less as the ratio o f diameter to height o f the pressing becomes greater. Here it should be observed that double action pressing considerably improves the distribution o f density through section and height o f the pressing. In the case o f pressing small quantities o f powder, the loss o f pressure and the 42 POWDER METALLURGY uneven distribution o f density through the height and section are unimportant and they can be disregarded.
1—matrix; 2—punch; 3—support; 4—support for extraction; 5—the compact. the compact out o f the die, to impart the exact dimensions to the compact (the so-called restrictors) and to ensure the evenness o f the compression on all sides o f the article. In order to exploit the fundamental advantages o f powder metallurgy (which lie in being able to manufacture articles o f previously determined finished shape and size without subsequent machining and with the minimum amount o f finishing), it is necessary to employ dies that are the volumetric negative o f the article being made.
However, the chief factor here is not the absolute dimensions o f particle, but the particle size distribution. Thus, identical spherical particles fill a constant fraction o f the available space; with a combination o f various-sized particles it is theoretically possible to achieve a significant increase in density. T h e shape and surface condition of particles are very important in the packing. For example, acicular and dendritic structures provide for greater cohesion and contact than the equiaxed and especially spherical ones; the presence o f oxides on the surface tends to lower strength and alter the apparent density o f the powder, because the oxides are more brittle than the basic metal.