Programming in standard ML by Harper R.

By Harper R.

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The underscores indicate “don’t care” positions in the pattern — their values are not bound to any variable. 1 Product Types where pat is a pattern and exp is an expression. A pattern is one of three forms: 1. A variable pattern of the form var:typ. 2. ,patn ), where each pati is a pattern. This includes as a special case the null-tuple pattern, (). 3. A wildcard pattern of the form . The type of a pattern is determined by an inductive analysis of the form of the pattern: 1. A variable pattern var:typ is of type typ.

The bindings for m and n are local to the expression m*n, and are not accessible from outside the expression. If the declaration part of a let expression eclipses earlier bindings, the ambient bindings are restored upon completion of evaluation of the let expression. 5 Typing and Evaluation val m : int = 2 val r : int = let val m : int = 3 val n : int = m*m in m*n end * m The binding of m is temporarily overridden during the evaluation of the let expression, then restored upon completion of this evaluation.

The data might be taken to be the values 2, 3, and 4, leaving behind the pattern * ( + ), with “holes” where the data used to be. We might equally well take the data to just be 2 and 3, and leave behind the pattern * ( + 4). Or we might even regard * and + as the data, leaving 2 (3 4) as the pattern! What is important is that a complete expression can be recovered by filling in the holes with chosen data. Since a pattern can contain many different holes that can be independently instantiated, it is necessary to give names to the holes so that instantiation consists of plugging in a given value for all occurrences of a name in an expression.

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