By Daniel Adams
Silver has the bottom resistivity of all metals, which makes it an enticing interconnect fabric for larger present densities and swifter switching speeds in built-in circuits. over the last ten years, large learn has been performed to deal with the thermal and electric balance, in addition to processing matters which, to this point, have avoided the implementation of silver as an interconnect steel. Silver Metallization: balance and Reliability is the 1st ebook to debate present wisdom of silver metallization and its power as a good candidate for implementation as a destiny interconnect fabric for built-in circuit technology.
Silver Metallization: balance and Reliability presents exact details on a variety of experimental, characterization and research ideas. It additionally provides the radical methods used to beat the thermal and electric balance matters linked to silver metallization. Readers will know about the: - training and characterization of elemental silver skinny movies and silver-metal alloys; - formation of diffusion limitations and adhesion promoters; - evaluate of the thermal balance of silver below varied annealing stipulations; - overview of houses of silver skinny movies less than quite a few processing stipulations; - tools of dry etching of silver strains and the combination of silver with low-k dielectric fabrics.
As a useful source during this rising box; Silver Metallization: balance and Reliability can be very priceless to scholars, scientists, engineers and technologists within the fields of built-in circuits and microelectronics learn and improvement.
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Additional info for Silver Metallization (Engineering Materials and Processes)
A. Nicolet, Thin Solid Films 52, 415(1978). D. Adams, G. F. Malgas, N. D. Theodore, R. Gregory, H. C. Kim, E. Misra, T. L. Alford, J. W. Mayer. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(5), 2345(2004). S. P. Murarka, R. J. Gutman, A. E. Kaloyeros and W. A. Lanford, Thin Solid Films, 236, 257(1993). H. Miyazaki, K. Hinode, Y. Homma and K. Mukai, Jpn. J. Appl. , 48, 329(1987). T. L. Alford, D. Adams, T. Laursen and B. M. Ullrich, Appl. Phys. , 68, 3251(1996). D. Adams, T. Laursen, T. L. Alford, and J. W. Mayer.
Impurities and structural imperfections such as grain boundaries, dislocations and vacancies contribute to electron scattering and hence to increasing resistivity. With regards to the TaN phases formed as a function of N2 flow rate and the resulting resistivity, the results of the present work confirmed the successive appearance of Ta-rich and N-rich phases and an increase in resistivity with increasing nitrogen partial flow . The broadening of the XRD peaks for flow rates above 30% N2 is indicative of the near-amorphous nature of the films, which, in turn is mainly due to smaller crystallite size and decreasing long-range order in the films.
All the samples selected for the experiment were deposited at one time with the same deposition parameters. Before processing, the above obtained films were cleaned with acetone, de-ionized water, and dried in dry nitrogen gas. Silver was deposited on Pa-n by electron beam evaporation technique. Operating pressure during evaporation was maintained at 3×10–6 Torr. 5×10–6 Torr. The expected thickness of Ag was 200 nm. All of the samples were annealed in a tube furnace at different temperatures ranging from 100 to 375°C.